Cultural Benefits

 

…and quality of life in Saskatchewan.
How many reasons do you need to believe?

 

 

Did you know that participation in cultural activity…

… teaches us to be more empathetic towards the people of other cultures.
This development of compassion and empathy, as opposed to development of greed and a "me first" attitude, provides a bridge across cultural chasms that leads to respect of other races at an early age. (1)

Immigrants in the workforce help enhance creativity, productivity and decision-making through diverse approaches. (36)

Dance, music, photography and other visual arts transcend language. The arts promote a deeper understanding of similarities and differences among religions, race and cultural traditions.
 
…enhances teamwork skills, self-discipline and perseverance.
In order for an orchestra to sound good, or to master a dance performance, all players must work together harmoniously towards a single goal, the performance, and must commit to learning, attending rehearsals, and practicing. (1)

It is now well-documented through studies that engagement in the arts and cultural activities has beneficial, measurable effects on cognitive development in children – fostering creativity, problem-solving, team-building and communication skills, discipline, and direction, all desirable citizen qualities.(17)

Learning to play a musical instrument, rehearsing a play or executing a mosaic mural requires long hours of practice, focus and perseverance, all components of self-discipline - trait that many at-risk youth are desperately lacking. (3)

 
…encourages pro-social behaviours.
Research has indicated that children who participate in cultural activities generally gain and improve skills, as well as learn how to interact with others. (2) Dance and writing are used with elders and adolescents to engage both verbal and nonverbal ways of knowing and helping them express “the complex physical, social and psychological issues in their lives.” (16)

Organized youth activities, such as cultural activities, can deter risky behaviour in adolescents. Students who participate in band, orchestra, chorus or a school play, for example, are significantly less likely than non-participants to drop out of school, be arrested, use drugs or engage in binge drinking. (3)

Findings by researchers indicate improved life skills by participants of youth arts programs including an increased ability to express anger appropriately, to communicate effectively with adults and peers and to work co-operatively to resolve conflicts. (24)

 
…builds self-esteem and self-confidence.
Children who participate in organized activities outside of school, such as sports, music, the arts or clubs, tend to have higher self-esteem, interact better with friends and perform somewhat better in school. (12)

Culturally-based programs in areas of art, drama music and dance provide a different, but equally important, means of building skills in creative thinking, decision-making and problem-solving. They foster social skills including co-operative work, negotiation, conflict resolution and tolerance for difference, as well as personal skills such as individual responsibility, perseverance, self-management and integrity.(45)

 

Did you know that participation in the arts…

…contributes to academic achievement.
Participation in the arts encourages students to think creatively and to solve problems by imagining various solutions, rejecting outdated rules and assumptions. Questions about the arts do not have only one right answer.(1)

Both 8th grade and high school students who had high levels of arts engagement were more likely to aspire to college than were students with less arts engagement.(49)

Students who had intensive arts experiences in high school were three times more likely than students who lacked those experiences to earn a bachelor’s degree. They also were more likely to earn “mostly A’s” in college. (49)

Young people who participate in the arts for at least three hours, three days a week, over a year, are four times more likely to be recognized for academic achievement, participate in a math or science fair, or win an award for an essay or poem, and three times more likely to be elected to class office within their schools, or be recognized for school attendance.(12)

Research has demonstrated that studying and participating in the arts at an early age increases the capacity for learning. The arts enhance skills such as problem-solving, creativity, self-discipline, critical thinking, recognition and respect for differences, understanding of the self and others, and communicative abilities.(12)

The arts give youngsters a richer reservoir of information to draw upon in pursuing other subjects, such as reading, writing, mathematics and history. Drawing helps writing; song and poetry make facts memorable; drama makes history more vivid and real; and creative movement makes processes understandable. (3)

Research has found that the arts are an effective method to develop cognitive skills. The arts improve critical thinking, problem-posing, problem-solving and decision-making skills. They foster high-order thinking skills of analysis, synthesis and evaluation, as well as developing children’s imagination and judgement.(25)

Researchers found a correlation between high involvement in art and sport activities with better academic scores and lower high school dropout rates among all students. (25)

In a study of at-risk students enrolled in arts classes, a majority of the students indicated that their participation in the arts influenced their decision to stay in school. They saw benefits in hands-on involvement, opportunities for individual expression, pride in creative accomplishment, and an environment of high standards and expectations.(26)

At-risk teenagers or young adults with a history of intensive arts experiences show achievement levels closer to, and in some cases exceeding, the levels shown by the general population studied.(49)
...teaches young people to conquer fear and to take risks.
A little anxiety is a good thing, and something that will occur often in life. Dealing with it early and often makes it less of a problem later. Risk-taking is essential if a child is to fully develop his or her potential. Music, in particular, contributes to mental health and can help prevent risky behavior such as teenage drug abuse, which often leads to institutionalization.(1)

Seventy per cent of educators surveyed about the ArtsSmarts programs reported behavioral changes in students and increased student engagement in school. “Problem students” showed significant artistic skill and leadership in projects and lower absenteeism.(12)

The arts are the forces that help people adapt to new circumstances, that stimulate new ideas that promote flexibility, and that create possibilities where before there were only obstacles. (14)

Arts shouldn’t be seen as an optional extra, beyond the proper “academic” subjects. We need an education that is holistic and values the visual as much as numeracy and literacy. Students who engage in arts in school are twice as likely to volunteer and more than 20% more likely to vote.(36)

Socially and economically disadvantaged children and teenagers who have high levels of arts engagement or arts learning show more positive outcomes in a variety of areas than their low-arts-engaged peers. (49)
…provides people of all ages with a means of self-expression.
Now that there is relative security in the basics of existence, the challenge is to make life meaningful and to reach for a higher stage of development. Everyone needs to be in touch at some time in his life with his core, with what he is and what he feels. Self-esteem is a by-product of this self-expression.(1)

Research confirms that youth vandalize with graffiti and join gangs in search of recognition, achievement and self-expression. Cultural activities provide a positive way to address these needs. (2)

Activity in the brain region linked to introspection and self-referential though suggests “self-relevance is an integral aspect of “intensely moving” aesthetic experiences. This activation allows the poem, play or painting “ to interact with the neural processes related to the self, affect them, and possibly even be incorporated into them.” (40)

Changes in body image may be expressed through movement and dance. Drama offers the opportunity to explore identity by integrating childhood roles and experimenting with future possibilities. Music expresses emotional dissonance and volatility. The visual arts provide a vehicle for translating inner experiences to outward visual images. Writing and oral history projects bring a greater understanding of one’s family and neighbourhood. (4)
 
…contributes to personal health and wellness.
An independent think tank explored the impact participating in arts activities had on health and found that over half of those surveyed reported feeling healthier, nearly three-quarters felt happier, 80% had learned new skills, and 84% felt more confident.(12)

Music in particular helps us keep active. Listening to music competes for our brain’s attention, and can help us to override signals of fatigue when exercising. Not only can we push through the pain to exercise longer and harder, but music helps us use our energy more efficiently. (34)

Men who enjoy taking in the ballet or browsing art museums are more likely to be happy with their lives and satisfied with their health than men who don’t enjoy the finer things in life. Results suggest that encouraging cultural participation may be one way to encourage healthfulness.(50)

Musicians retain the ability to distinguish speech in noisy conditions far longer than non-musicians. Researcher reported that playing music seem to delay the decay in the aging brain’s central auditory processing system.(51)
 

 

Did you know that the study of music…

…helps develop areas of the brain involved in language and reasoning.
It is thought that brain development continues for many years after birth. Recent studies have clearly indicated that musical training physically develops the part of the left side of the brain known to be involved with processing language, and can actually wire the brain's circuits in specific ways. Linking familiar songs to new information can also help imprint information on young minds.(1)

Learning and performing music actually exercises the brain, not merely by developing specific music skills, but also by strengthening the synapses between brain cells. Synapses grow stronger with use and become weaker with disuse. Making music activity engages the brain synapses and there is good reason to believe that this strengthening of synapses increases the brain’s capacity. (18)

A research team exploring the link between music and intelligence reported that music training is far superior to computer instruction in dramatically enhancing children’s abstract reasoning skills, the skills necessary for learning math and science.(20)

Across cultures, it appears, training on a musical instrument improves kids’ verbal memory. An 18-month study suggests “a positive transfer effect from the musical expertise into speech and language processing.” The researchers note that no similar effect was found for kids taking an enriched academic curriculum.(42)

Kids’ brain power is radically boosted by learning to play music than just listening to it. Even kids who’ve had 20 minutes a day of music lessons – which isn’t a whole lot – will after a year demonstrate changes in how their nervous system responds to sound, be it music or speech. Playing an instrument teaches the brain to enhance relevant sounds in complex processes – a skill especially helpful to those with learning disabilities that make them vulnerable to background noise.(52)

Music does for the brain, what exercise does for the body. Musicians have more brain grey matter volume in areas that are important for playing an instrument and in the auditory cortex, which processes all kinds of sound. The benefits of music training transfer to speech, language, emotion and general auditory processing.(53)

 
…helps students learn the value of sustained effort to achieve excellence.
Learning a musical instrument takes time and patience. This concentrated effort to move forward, is important to helping young people see the impact of their efforts.(1) Qualitative data shows that arts activities gave young people a sense of pride and achievement, motivated young people who were often difficult to motivate, changed group dynamics based on aggression and conflict to a more supportive atmosphere, and allowed participants to explore personal issues through activities such as story-telling.(23)

Research shows that people have better “musical sophistication” in periods of their lives with more flexibility, such as at school, university or when they are self-employed. Late adolescence is where a peak stage is reached for sophisticated engagement with music.(41)
 
… develops skills that are necessary in the workplace.
It focuses on "doing," as opposed to observing, and teaches students how to perform, literally, anywhere in the world. Employers are looking for multi-dimensional workers with the sort of flexible and supple intellects that music education helps to create. In the music classroom, students can also learn to better communicate and cooperate with one another.
 
… contributes to emotional and psychological well-being.
Creating music makes the elderly healthier. Researchers found that there were significant decreases in anxiety, depression and loneliness following piano lessons.(13)

Music can lower your stress level, make you healthier, ease pain and enhance your creativity in all areas of your life.

Research shows that people who spend many hours practicing a musical instrument not only process information unusually efficiently, they also do a superior job of not letting occasional errors derail them. These findings suggest that playing a musical instrument might improve the ability to monitor our behaviour and adjust our responses effectively when needed. This evidence could promote musical activity as a realistic intervention to slow or even present (at least one type of) age-related decline.(35)

It’s not just kids that benefit. Stroke patients in one study showed improved visual attention while listening to classical music. (33)

Listening to certain classical works – including those by Mozart – helps ease the debilitating symptoms of clinical depression. The evidence suggests that some baroque music can have beneficial effects on depressed patients. Music can activate several processes which facilitate brain development and/or plasticity, and may increase dopamine levels in the brain.(54)
 

 

Did you know that exploring heritage…

…can provide youth with insight into their sense of self.
Understanding ones culture helps children understand themselves and the images other have of them. This knowledge can help bind them more fully to the larger society of which they are a part. (Coming Up Taller, President’s Committee on the Arts and Humanities, 1999)

Students do not necessarily understand that they have traditional art, knowledge and culture. Studying folk arts and traditional culture bolsters self-esteem as it provides students with the realization of what they already know and understand. (19)

When children speak the language of their parents, grandparents, and siblings, they experience a sense of belonging to a family, community and culture. Communicating will children in the native language helps to promote a sense of connectedness among the child, the family and the heritage culture and community. (55)

Numerous Reports have proven that students who have studied a foreign language perform much better than their monolingual peers on many standardized tests. (56)

Research into the effects of bilingualism on children suggests that exposure to more than one language is an excellent way of flexing those brain muscles. Bilingual children showed a significantly larger density of “grey matter” in their brains...responsible for processing information, including memory, speech and sensory perception. (56)
 
...helps us understand and value our shared sense of place.
Saskatchewan is the site of North America’s oldest bird sanctuary, established in 1887 at Last Mountain Lake.(30)

A recent Ipsos-Reid poll shows that more than 97 per cent of Canadian believe that getting outdoors is important to their family’s well-being. The poll found that Canadians are happier when they are connected to nature.(57)
 
…helps us all understand today’s challenges.
Europeans widely accept the need to know one or more foreign languages. They are committed to second language programming in schools and other language-related initiatives. The study of at least one foreign language in the primary or secondary school system is obligatory in virtually all European countries. The ability to speak another language provides individuals with a distinct advantage in cultural sensitivity in global markets.(43)
 
…helps preserve our individual and shared heritage for future generations.
There are approximately 6,700 languages spoken in 228 countries in the world. In Saskatchewan, there are over 75 different languages spoken. Some languages, particularly in the Aboriginal culture are in danger of extinction. Saskatchewan still has a large percentage of residents who have a mother tongue other than English or French.
 

 

Did you know that a cultural workers (paid and unpaid)…

…make up 1.46% of Saskatchewan’s labour force.
Approximately 11,000 people are employed in Saskatchewan’s cultural sector.(9)

Cultural workers make up 14% of Saskatchewan’s self-employed labour force.(8)
 
…make up 3% of Canada’s over 13.3 million volunteers.
Saskatchewan has the highest volunteer rate in the country at 58%, well above the national average of 47%. While 12% of Canada’s estimated 13.3 million volunteers support sport and recreation programs, approximately 3% of this total support arts and culture through the country.(44)
 
…are often highly educated.
Forty-five per cent of the Saskatchewan cultural labour force hold degrees, compared with 15 per cent of the overall labour force.(8)
 
…are strong leaders.
A particular Business School equates leaders and artists in that both know how to coach, encourage, take risks, innovate, inspire and express a vision; both use the capacities of emotional observation and critical judgement.(15)

Immigrants can help businesses tap into new local and international markets, and expand customer bases through improved cultural awareness and communications. (36)
 
…from Saskatchewan are recognized nationally each year.
At one point, Saskatchewan at the highest per capita number of writers in Canada. Of all Saskatchewan writers, 69% are self-employed.(8)

William Ormond (W.O.) Mitchell (1914-98) is perhaps the province’s most familiar literary figures. He is best remembered for his novel “Who Has Seen the Wind”, and his “Jake and the Kid” series of farm-like stories, written for CBC Radio, then published and later adapted as a television series.

Visual art began with the Indigenous peoples of the land, including the well-known talents of Allan Sapp and Micheal Lonechild, as well as the early immigrant landscape painters, including Augustus Kenderdine, Inglis Sheldon-Williams, Illingworth Kerr, James Henderson and Ernest Lindner.

The amateur “little theatre” movement began to develop in Saskatchewan towns and cities following the decline of travelling shows. Regina Little Theatre was established in 1926. It is one of the oldest continuously operating amateur theatre groups in Canada.

The hit television series “Corner Gas”, a sitcom set in small-town Saskatchewan, based on the comedy of Tisdale native Brent Butt, also featuring the acting talents of Saskatchewan locals Eric Peterson and Janet Wright, achieved international recognition.

Saskatchewan born talents continue to attract international acclaim: Buffy Sainte-Marie, Connie Kaldor, Colin James, Tatiana Maslany and Jack Semple
 

 

Did you know that cultural tourism…

…is a key reason people stay longer in a community, and spend more money.
Travellers who included cultural events in their travel agendas inject an estimated $10 billion into the Canadian economy annually. (6)
 
…encourages local residents to explore their own province and community.
Canadian travellers who included cultural activities as part of their travel agenda tended to stay within or near their home province; 90% of these person trips were made in their home province and an additional 13% to a neighboring province. (7)

Beyond its economic goal of attracting tourists, cultural tourism’s conservation of a region’s heritage helps the local population better understand who they are, where they live and why they are unique. This helps instill a sense of pride in the community. (28)
 
…shows the uniqueness of Saskatchewan and its communities.
Just as the Eiffel Tower is a cultural symbol of Paris, France, communities throughout Saskatchewan have heritage attractions that showcase their uniqueness to the world. Battlefords has its Battle River Settlement, Wolesley has its Opera House, St. Victors has its hieroglyphics, and many more communities can be added to this list.

Millions take in a cultural or heritage attraction while on vacation, making this kind of tourism a burgeoning phenomenon with still more promise to be tapped. It binds this country together and puts Canada in a position to make a unique contribution to the global heritage community. (29)
 
…attracts more international tourists.
While American travellers showed a strong interest in Canadian cultural activities and events (52% of all US person trips), other international travellers were the most likely of all to participate in cultural activities while travelling in Canada (68% of all trips). (6)
 

 

Did you know that culture contributes to communities by…

…helping engage and connect citizens.
One scholar identified five key characteristics of a successful community: abundant social capital (cultural opportunities, and facilities, safety, health care and sociability); strong connections with the outside world; a willingness to welcome and integrate newcomers; the ability to innovate; and the capacity to collaborate. Most of these characteristics can be developed through cultural participation.(4)

Fifty-nine per cent of arts patrons, 18 years and older, agree strongly that local arts activities and performances help make their community more lively and vibrant. Forty-three per cent of arts patrons, 18 years and older, agree strongly that local arts activities and performances help people in their community connect with one another. (11)

Community development work in… creating spaces for people to interact with neighbours through local events, street parties, sports, arts and culture events, consultation and community planning work. These approaches are proven to be effective at engaging residents and helping to support strong social networks and working to breakdown barriers and reduce tensions between different social, faith or ethnic groups. (38)
 
…Increasing diversity and vitality.
Communities generate social stability by mixing more permanent residents with people who come and go. Those who stay for extended periods provide the continuity, whole newcomers provide the diversity and interplay that generates the creative mix. Newcomers have to feel welcome to your community.

By 2031, it is estimated nearly half (46%) of Canadians aged 15 and over would be foreign-born or have at least one foreign-born a parent. Also, 47% of second-generation Canadians (at least one parent born outside Canada) would belong to a visible minority group, nearly double the proportion of 24% in 2006. Currently, 15% of Regina and 10% of Saskatoon’s residents are foreign-born, and 12% of Regina and 13% of Saskatoon residents are a visible minority.(48)

Studies show that uni-cultural activity often leads to intercultural participation. The report indicates that the most effective way to bring people of different cultural backgrounds together is through annual festival where the uniqueness of each culture is shared through food, crafts or entertainment.(22)

Canada has embraced diversity, or cultural pluralism as some people refer to it, in both policy and practice. It is viewed as one of Canada’s most important attributes, socially and economically. (29)

Canada’s experience with diversity distinguishes it from most other countries. Our 35 million plus population reflects a cultural, ethnic and linguistic makeup found nowhere else on earth. (29)

At the community level, the arts have been found to foster social cohesion and community identity by promoting multicultural understanding. (Azmier, 2002) (45)

A majority of respondents (87%) strongly supported the nations that immigrants make a valuable contribution to Saskatchewan and consider current levels of immigration appropriate for the province’s needs. Online slight less (73%) agreed that immigrants should be encouraged to retain their cultural heritage.(46)

A majority (74%) of respondents agree that Aboriginal people will make an important contribution to Saskatchewan’s future economy. And believe that public investments in Aboriginal education pay off in the long run.(47)
 
…supporting those in need.
Arts and cultural activities benefit communities by providing members with a sense of attachment to the community. Delinquency is often explained by the absence of strong bonds to society.(21)

Public libraries strengthen communities by ensuring that people of all ages and economic statures in Saskatchewan have equitable access to information. (27)

A strong arts presence was correlated with reduced poverty and population growth, while areas with poor arts development had declining population’s and lower incomes (Stern and Seifert,1998) (45)
 
…expressing a shared sense of community pride.
Canadian culture is the shared experience of being Canadian. Through books and magazines, radio and television programs, films, multimedia, art and theatre, museums and historic sites, Canadian culture helps us to understand and to celebrate our lives as Canadians. (29)

By encouraging citizens to express themselves, the arts can help revitalize communities and provide a sense of identity, cohesion, pride, responsibility and power. (10)

One of the most distinguishing features of local culture is the crucial role ordinary citizens have in expressing it…local plays , variety concerts, festivals, craft fairs, heritage days and other events turn mechanics and real estate salesmen into artisans and amateur performers. (28)

From murals, songs and dances to museums, stages, landscapes and built environments, in cities, suburbs, and towns, the arts make the places we live in better. Not only do the arts provide the grounding of identity and the creation of spirit in communities, they also provide jobs and incentives for community improvement, and help to attract new residents and visitors. (17)

Culture, in all its forms, is the essence and key expression of our identity and heritage as Canadians. (31)

Communities earn a reputation as fun, festive and welcoming when their immigrant population is visibly celebrated and accepted.(36)
 
…building social capital.
Many cultural organization exist today thanks to the inspiration and efforts of volunteers. Thousands of volunteers continue to be the cornerstone of cultural activity in the province. Cultural volunteers may seek to enrich the quality of their lives through the donation of their time and energy; however, they also enhance the quality of life of all residents through their work.(4)

Young adults who had intensive arts experiences high school are more likely to show civic-minded behavior than young adults who did not. They take an interest in current affairs, as evidenced by comparatively high levels of volunteering, voting and engagement with local or school politics (49)

Saskatchewan has one of the highest rates (58.6%) of volunteer participation in the country. (5)

As a vehicle for increasing civic participation, the arts and culture can help overcome passivity and a sense of alienation and isolation. (12)

Immigrants are more likely than Canadian –born citizens to take an interest in local politics. They are a strong volunteer base and tend to have high voter turnout rates. (36)

Creative place-making, which links community, economic and cultural development planning around a sense of place and its assets, results in a wide range of positive outcomes, including job creation, strengthening networks, building social capital and community capacity. (39)

Participation in cultural and recreational programs have been found to promote social connectedness in communities and shape civic behaviour later in life.(45)
 
…generating economic benefits.
A vibrant arts community is critical when corporations decide where to locate and when people decide where to work.(28)

Great cities are places where people from virtually any background are welcome to turn their energy and ideas into innovations and wealth. By supporting lifestyle and cultural institutions like a cutting-edge music scene or vibrant artistic community, for instance, helps to attract and stimulate those who create in business and technology.(32)

Foreign direct investment in to Canada is far greater from countries that are well-represented in Canada through immigration. Immigration rates improve trade between Canada and immigrants’ countries of origin.(36)

The most important factor to the economic sustainability of community is distinctiveness: a community’s unique collection of qualities and characteristics. Whether they are visual, cultural, social, environmental, characterises are that which provide meaning to a location, sense of place is what makes one city or town different from another; but, sense of place is also what makes our physical surroundings worth caring about. – Edward T. McMahon, Urban Land Institute’s Senior Fellow for Sustainable Development.(37)

Economic benefits come both from direct job in the cultural and arts industries and through indirect spin-offs from tourism, local investment and export products. The arts can have a positive impact on urban quality of life through health outcomes, social cohesion and urban revitalization.(45)

Evidence suggests that cultural industries, which can compass everything from the performing arts and museums to film production and video games, contribute to gross domestic product and employment and can improve a country’s foreign trade position and competitiveness.(58)
 

For years, SaskCulture has been sharing with others the many benefits of culture…most specifically, how Culture Builds Community! 


WORKS CITED – SASKCULTURE’S CULTURAL BENEFITS CLEARING HOUSE

(updated May 2014)

1. Twelve Benefits of Music Education, by Carolyn Phillips. http://www.childrensmusicworkshop.com/advocacy/12benefits.html

2. National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth: Participation in Activities, Statistics Canada, 1998/99

3. President’s Committee on the Arts and Humanities, 1999, Culture Counts: the Case for the Arts and the Humanities in Youth Development. www.cominguptaller.org

4. Moss Kanter, Rosabeth. World Class, Thriving Locally in the Global Economy, Simon & Shuster, 1995)

5. National Survey of Giving, Volunteering and Participating. Statistics Canada, 1997.

6. Culture on the Go, Focus on Culture, Statistics Canada, Spring 1997.

7. A Close-up of Culture/Heritage Travel in Canada. Focus on Culture. Statistics Canada, 1998.

8. Cultural Labour Force Survey, Statistics Canada, 1995.

9. Hill Strategies, Labour Force Survey, Statistics Canada, 2011

10. Arts and Community: A Discussion paper, Canadian Conference of the Arts, 1999.

11. Ipsos-Reid and The Council for Business and the Arts Canada, 2001

12. Advocacy Primer for the Federal Election. Canadian Conference of the Arts, 2004.

13. The National Association for Music Education, 1999

14. Government of Alberta web site, 1999 http://www.gov.ab.ca

15. Alburty,S (1999). A Cast of Leaders. In Kerka, S. (2002). Adult Learning in and through the Arts. ERIC Digest. No. 236

16. Apol L.,and Kambour, T. 1999. Telling Stories through Writing and Dance: An Intergenerational Project. In Kerka, S (2002). Adult Learning in and through the Arts. ERIC Digest. No. 236

17. The Arts and the Public Purpose.The Ninety-Second American Assembly, 1999

18. The Music in our minds, 1998 Educational Leadership.

19. Folk arts in the Classroom: Why Folk Arts, 1999 www.ccarts.org

20. Shaw et al, 1997)

21. Statistics Canada, 1999 Family characteristic of problem kids. Canadian Social Trends.

22. Government of Alberta, Alberta Community Development, http://www.gov.ab.ca

23. Arts Council England, 2003, Addressing youth Offending: Arts Council England’s contribution to the Splash Extra programme 2002. Saskatchewan Culture, Youth and Recreation.

24. National Endowment for the Arts, 1999 Endowment News. http://www.arts.endow.gov

25. Catterall, Chapleu and Iwanaga, 1999 Involvement in the Arts and Human Development: General Involvement and Intensive Involvement in Muse and Theatre Arts. Los Angeles, CCA: The Imagination Project at UCLA Graduate School of Education and Information Studies.

26. Woody, R. H. 1998 Saskatchewan Culture, Youth and Recreation. 2003. Music in the Education of young Adolescents.

27. Saskatchewan Multi-type Library Board, 2002 Saskatchewan Libraries Working Together: Discussion Paper.

28. Government of Alberta web site, 19999 http://www.gov.ab.ca

29. Canadian Heritage web site http://www.pch.gc.ca , 1999

30. Tourism Saskatchewan, 2004

31. Lincoln, Clifford 1999 A Sense of Place, A Sense of Being. The Evolving Role of the Federal Government in Support of Culture in Canada. Ottawa

32. Florida, R. 2002. The Rise of the Creative Class: and how it’s transforming work, leisure, community and everyday life. Perseus Books Group.

33. Pei-Luen Tsai; Mei-Ching Chen; Yu-Ting Huang; Keh-Chung Lin; Kuan-Lin Chen; Yung-Wen Hsu. Listening to Classical Music Ameliorates Unilateral Neglect After Stroke. American Journal of Occupational Therapy , May 2013, Vol.67, 328-335. doi:10.5014/ajot.2013.006312. http://ajot.aota.org/article.aspx?articleid=1851684&resultClick=3

34. Music helps you work harder. Scientific American. March 2013. http://www.scientificamerican.com/podcast/episode/music-helps-you-work-harder-13-11-03/

35. Want Quick, Accurate Thinking? Ask a Musician. By Tom Jacobs. September 24, 2013. www.psmag.com/blogs/news-blog/want-quick-acccurate-thinking-ask-musician-66844/

36. Benefits of Multiculturalism. Burnaby Intercultural Planning Table http://www.bipt.ca/community/benefits-multiculturalism

37. The Importance of Sense of Place, by Ed van der Maarel. Municipal World, February 2013.

38. New Towns: The British Experience. As quoted in Learning from the past? By Marina Scott, Neil Stott and Colin Wiles, Keystone Development Trust. 2009.

39. Creative Place making: heritage meets the creative industries. By Greg Baeker and Lauren Miller. Municipal World, February 2013.

40. Mapping the Brain’s Response to Art by Tom Jacobs. Pacific Standard: The Science of Society. January 21, 2014. www.psmag.com/author/tomjacobs

41. Wealthier people are more musical, by George Arnett. The Guardian, March 5, 2014. www.theguardian.com

42. More Evidence Music Training boosts Brainpower. Pacific Standard. January 24, 2013. http://www.psmag.com/blogs/news-blog/more-evidence-music-training-boosts-brainpower-51407

43. Heritage Languages: building blocks for the future. Saskatchewan Organization for Heritage Languages. Keewatin Publications. Undated

44. General Social Survey – Giving, Volunteering and Participating (GVP) Statistics Canada, 2010 www.statcan.gc.ca

45. Culture and Recreation: Links to Well-Being. By Sherri Torjman. Caledon Institute of Social Policy, 2001

46. Taking the Pulse of Saskatchewan 2012 – Immigration and Diversity. Social Sciences Research Laboratories, University of Saskatchewan, October 2012.

47. Taking the Pulse of Saskatchewan 2012 – Aboriginal Issues in Saskatchewan. Social Sciences Research Laboratories, University of Saskatchewan, October 2012.

48. Study: Projections of the Diversity of the Canadian Population. Statistics Canada. March 9, 2010.

49. Catterall, James S., Dumais, Susan A., Hampden-Thomspon, Gillian. The Arts and Achievement in At-Risk youth: Findings from Four Longitudinal Studies. National Endowment for the Arts, March 2012.

50. Cultured men are happier, study finds. By Stephanie Pappas, senior writer, LiveScience, as reported from Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, May 23, 2011, e-Visnyk, Ukrainian Canadian Congress – SPC, 2011.

51. Musicians Hear Better into Old Age. Miller-McCune. September 16, 2011. www.miller-mccune.com

52. Kids learn faster if they play music: study. By Misty Harris. Postmedia News. 2011.

53. Music Training Helps learning & Memor,y by William Klemm, D.V.M, Ph.D., Psychology Today. July 31, 2010.

54. Classical Music an Effective Antidepressant. By Tom Jacobs. Miller-McCune www.milller-mccune.com August 2, 2010.

55. Parents Can Guide Children through the World of Two Languages. By Mary Jane Biasi, Debra A Giambo and Tunde Szecsi. www.questia.com, 2009

56. Top 10 Benefits of Early Language Learning. Undated

57. Outdoor activity good for you. Yorkton This Week, February 27, 2013.

58. UNESCO study on measuring the economic contribution of cultural industries, by Judith Staines. http://culture360.org/news. March 11, 2013.