Awakening a Spirit of Cross-Cultural Sharing
On tour with the Saskatchewan Archaeology Society
The Museums Association of Saskatchewan shows how food triggers Intangible Cultural Heritage
Learning traditional knowledge of plants and healing
An interview with intangible cultural heritage stewards: Dale Jarvis and Kristin Catherwood
St. Francis School in Saskatoon partners with artists from the Gordon Tootoosis Nīkānīwin Theatre to create a Cree language play interpreted from the Hollywood movie Jumanji.
Youth finding their own voices in history
Northern Saskatchewan students build their own stories
Connecting youth to their Indigenous culture
Youth can have an important voice in important national discussion
How SYCAP is transforming lives through creativity
On tour with the Saskatchewan Archaeology Society
How the SaskPower Windscape Kite Festival generates imagination on the prairies.
A look into the Saskatchewan Festival of Words
During Culture Days 2013, the Multicultural Council of Saskatchewan hired a freelance journalist, Evie Ruddy, and a videographer, Jason Rister, to travel around the province.
The Saskatchewan Archaeological Society engages newcomer youth in uncovering the past.
Joyce Vandall has been a passionate community volunteer for over 30 years.
Several Saskatchewan communities are bringing the concept of an ‘ecomuseum’ to the province.
Kevin Power is the creator and host of SaskScapes, a series of podcasts devoted to arts, culture and heritage in Saskatchewan.
Ashley Norton, co-founder of the Wiichihiwayshinawn Foundation (“We are Helpers” in Michif), brought together a group of dancers from all over Saskatchewan to perform a contemporary jig dance at the Ice and Fire Festival, held in Regina, February 2013.
You may know the Ukrainian Museum of Canada tells the story of many people's immigration to Canada from Ukraine, but here are five other things you might not know about the first ethnic museum in Canada.
Creative Kids teamed up four-time Canadian Comedy Award nominee Jayden Pfeifer, of the comedy variety show Red Hot Riot, for an evening of laughter, mayhem and music, with all of it contributing to a great cause.
As the demographics of small town Saskatchewan change in the new millennium, local cultural centres are seeking new ways to engage with their communities. The station Arts Centre in Rosthern is one such centre that is setting a great example.
Sons of Anarchy star, Kim Coates, helps fundraise for Creative Kids in Saskatoon through an evening of "Creative Mayhem".
The Junior Curators Program was established in June 2013 to give local children an opportunity to become further involved with the museum.
Multiculturalism is a cause for celebration. Two Saskatchewan communities were among those hosting multicultural gatherings as part of Culture Days in September 2013.
The village of Hazlet in southwestern Saskatchewan has become an international cultural intersection point.
St. Walburg, Saskatchewan was a cultural hotspot during Culture Days in 2013.
People of all ages from the Prince Albert area have been discovering their inner artist thanks to a partnership between the Mann Art Gallery and a local business.
In May 2013, students from Oskayak High school in Saskatoon travelled north to the shores of Waterhen First Nation by the Meadow Lake Provincial Park.
It is said that music changes lives, and a musical collaboration between a local school teacher and an internationally acclaimed blues musician has done just that.
Borden’s annual Threshing Day, this year held in conjunction with Culture Days, offers guests an opportunity to leave their cars behind and ride a wagon into the past.
If a picture is worth a thousand words, then the worth of the Everett Baker photo collection is priceless.
With the province turning 108 years old in 2013, residents of Saskatchewan and its many communities are accustomed to celebrating centennials.
Building community ties and connections is challenging for large, rural school divisions. However, some divisions make these connections a vital part of their students’ education.
Art and creativity can be a powerful tool to bring people together and help them to learn from one another. This concept is something that the MacKenzie Art Gallery (MAG) in Regina has recognized and has been working with for several years.
Media workshop opening doors for newcomers to Saskatoon
This upcoming spring, the Saskatchewan Native Theatre Company (SNTC) will be showcasing a touching and inspirational story about a young girl discovering her cultural identity.
“Culture Days at Wanuskewin Heritage Park was a great success this year. We were expecting around 100 people, but throughout the day over 500 people visited the park," says Cameron McRae, visitor services manager, Wanuskewin Heritage Park.
Regina and Saskatoon have officially been challenged. PotashCorp has issued a city-wide challenge to both communities to raise $50,000 each for Creative Kids.
The Town of Luseland is preparing to welcome back a former resident. The Luseland and District Museum is planning to add a new wing to their centre that will focus on educating the public about Whooping Cranes.
It's not often that a budding filmmaker finds a summer job that will complement his or her future career and passion perfectly, but that was exactly the case for Mattias Graham.
The youth in the northern Saskatchewan Village of Sandy Bay felt they had nothing to do, or at least that is how they saw it until a group of artists known as Culture Synk came to the village for six days to create a collaborative music video project call
The Columbus Project, a large body of work by the late Aboriginal artist Carl Beam represents a repossession of indigenous identity and is considered a prominent historical milestone.
The annual John Arcand Fiddle Fest has come a long way in 15 years. It has grown from offering a few fiddle work-shops to an eventful, four-day festival, held at Windy Acres in Saskatoon, featuring concerts, competitions, dances and performances.
For many organizations, keeping up with technology can be a daunting task, such as using new tools in the workplace, incorporating new skills into daily life, or keeping up with social media trends.
Creating art is usually a personal experience for an artist. The process of creation usually occurs in studios out of sight, which often results in work that can be shared with the public.
Now that Culture Days has come and gone for 2011, many organizations have had the chance to reflect on their involvement. The Art Gallery of Swift Current is the one of many cultural organizations that was pleased with the results.
The Kroneau Heritage Museum has designed an outreach program to take the museum’s exhibitions to those who would, because of mobility issues, have difficulty visiting the museum in person.
This past spring, one small northern community decided to host an event that would bring together the northern communities together to share, learn and celebrate Métis culture.
Supporting the pursuit of national championships, producing videos, hosting seminars and touring the north are just a few of the activities keeping the Saskatchewan Elocution and Debate Association (SEDA) busy this past year.
This year, SaskCulture once again spearheaded the Culture Days celebrations in Saskatchewan. Leading up to the Culture Days week, organizers were pleased to see over 160 cultural activities registered, by over 40 communities in the province, into the nat
The Culture Days Movement in Saskatchewan continued on an upswing in 2011 with the expansion of SaskCulture’s commitment to the Culture Days Animateur program, from one artist in 2010 to four artists this year.
Thanks to a partnership between Central Urban Métis Federation Inc. and the Métis Cultural Development Fund, Saskatchewan filmmaker Jeanne Corrigal was able to tour her film, Jim Settee: The Journey Home, a documentary film about the life of Elder Jim Set
Sturgeon Lake First Nation, roughly 55km’s north of Prince Albert, works collaboratively with justice, education, Indian family services, health and administrative service portfolios to provide cultural activities for the community.
School is a place where we can learn about the world around us, but it is just as important for all students to see themselves reflected in curriculum, resources, and structure of learning.
Duck Lake has been busy with many projects aimed at bringing its history alive through arts, education and celebration. The area surrounding Duck Lake is rich with culture and the community has been busy working on ways it can reflect its vivid history.
A partnership between Neekaneet First Nations and the Maple Creek’s Southwest Saskatchewan Oldtimers Museum and Archive builds on the strengths of neighbours to create cultural opportunities for youth and increase cultural awareness and learning.
“So much of contemporary Aboriginal art practice, whether it is visual, media, performing, or interdisciplinary art work, is rooted in our culture’s oral stories and customary knowledge,” explains Elwood Jimmy, Festival co-director.
Individuals and communities have an interesting dynamic; it’s hard to think of one without the other and decide who builds whom.
As the end of the Creative Kids pilot year draws near, several communities in Saskatchewan have experienced the growing demand for this new charitable giving program. Interest is growing, and the town of Shaunavon, can attest to that.
Organized by the Humboldt and District Museum and Gallery, the Heritage Project gathered community input about its heritage and developed 12 heritage themes that reflect the life of the Humboldt community.
Brady, a veteran of WWII, educated and mobilized Métis communities on the rights of squatters on Crown lands and the establishment of Métis political groups that sought political and cultural protection for Métis peoples.
Yorkton was one of the first Saskatchewan communities to develop a cultural plan. Organizers saw its development as an opportunity to achieve greater community engagement in the development of Yorkton’s cultural sector.
Saskatchewan artist, Gabriel Yahkakeekoot of Beardys and Okemasis First Nations was hard at work this past year helping First Nations youth connect to the arts.
Workshops highlight the importance of the buffalo in First Nations culture
Story Slam promotes understanding between cultures
Discovering the Town of Allan's heritage
How a feast helps students share their culture
Top teacher is a life-long learner
Culture camp nurtures relationships
Youth spearheading fundraising efforts in support of Creative Kids
How a film about uncovering the past unexpectedly brings two filmmakers on a surprising personal journey
Dene Language Immersion Camp teaches the Importance of Language Preservation
The SaskScapes Podcast by Kevin Power, Community Engagement Animateur & Producer/Host of SaskScapes
Many believe the genuine roots of culture stem from music, and for the past five years, a unique music festival has been putting the cultural heritage of one Saskatchewan village on the map.
The words ‘heritage’ and ‘history’ on their own do not always elicit excitement. But add the word ‘haunted’ and the past takes on a mysterious allure.
It has been said that art has the capacity to express the inexpressible, and a new exhibition at the MacKenzie Art Gallery (MAG) hopes to give a voice to what often goes unsaid, and attract a large audience in doing so.
How Ukrainian and Japanese Canadians became prisoners of war in their own country during the World Wars’.
With a background in journalism, Evie ruddy is a natural storyteller. As a SaskCulture animateur, she is helping others develop that very same skill.
Jo Custead volunteers with a passion. Her volunteering experience has included organizations such as the Persephone Theatre, SaskCulture, Saskatoon Symphony Orchestra and the YWCA Saskatoon.
Language is a pathway to one’s cultural identity, and the Missinipi Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) in La Ronge is taking a leading role to ensure this link is not permanently lost for future generations.
This past summer, a unique camp offered parents a chance to learn and explore traditional First Nations parenting practices with their children.
The Cultural Arts Camp, hosted by the Birch Narrows Dene Community School, has started something they can’t stop, and its positive impact will be long lasting for the community of Turnor Lake.
There is more than one way to tell a story and the living sky school Division is bringing Treaty education to life through cultural experiences.
The Saskatchewan Writers' Guild has evolved to offer more programs and services, to serve a larger and more diverse membership and province.
Several years ago, CARFAC Saskatchewan (Canadian Artists’ Representation/le Front Des Artistes Canadiens) identified a gap in terms of its service to, and engagement with, the Aboriginal artist community.
The Town of Kindersley has been involved with Culture Days since its debut in Saskatchewan in 2010. In 2013, Kindersley upped its game, holding a number of activities including an innovative engagement opportunity called “Amazing Race: K-Town Edition*".
“Love Your Language, Speak with Pride.” This was the message bestowed on over 450 First Nations students at the province’s first-ever Indigenous language Festival.
Every fall, for nearly 30 years, a troupe of Saskatchewan artists has jumped aboard a van and hit the road to provide arts workshops to students in schools all across the province.
Since 2010, SaskCulture has hired Saskatchewan artists, from a variety of disciplines, to interest people – planners and public - in participating in Culture Days, a three-day event held during the last weekend in September each year.
For almost ten years, the Gateway Music Festival held in Bengough, SK has been entertaining audiences and providing a unique opportunity for Saskatchewan musicians to play alongside internationally acclaimed artists.
The Regina Plains Museum is now called the Civic Museum of Regina. Besides a new name, it also has a new address.
This past summer, Prairie Wind and Silver Sage was excited to launch phase one of their ecomuseum project exploring the unique character of the Grasslands, Val Marie and the surrounding area.
In August 2012, the Saskatchewan Writers’ Guild (SWG), in partnership with the First Nations University of Canada (FNUC), hosted the first annual Bringing Back the Buffalo: Aboriginal Youth Writers’ Retreat in Regina.
The village of Lestock is moving into the future using music and dance to celebrate differences and bring diverse cultures together.
John Lagimodiere has been busy myth busting with his Aboriginal Awareness Training sessions.
A university of Saskatchewan student is rewriting Saskatoon’s history—and now that history fits in the palm of your hand.
In the 1980’s, Sam Herman, then mayor of La Loche, encouraged community members to dress up in old-time clothing for a culture day celebration at the local elementary school. Thus, the Yanessa Days were born.
In some communities, role models are merely people to be admired. While they also admire their role models in Balcarres, some students at Balcarres Community School are also preserving their role models for “posterity”.
Amazing connections can be made, and powerful ideas can blossom when organizations come together to work collaboratively on a project.
Much has been said over the years about the term multiculturalism since it became a buzzword in the 1970’s.
This year, Saskatchewan artist Laura Hale has been hired to creatively engage others in celebrating the 100th anniversary of the Saskatchewan Legislature Building.
It only took two years for Culture Days to capture the imagination of people in cities and towns throughout Saskatchewan. Inspired by this success, SaskCulture, along with many community organizers, is eager to keep Culture Days as a focal point for cult
In its first year, the partnership between SaskCulture and Gabriel Dumont Institute (GDI), intended to increase interest and awareness of funding available to preserve Métis cultural heritage, has resulted in an overwhelming response.
Back in December, the provincial government declared 2012 as the Year of the Fransaskois in Saskatchewan and events marking this year-long celebration have been taking place across the province.
It’s no secret that being involved in cultural, sport or recreation activities during childhood can have many benefits. Participation can foster a greater sense of belonging and develop valuable life skills.
A shrine to Saskatchewan’s rich history, the Town of Battleford has moved its historic Town Hall/Opera House onto centre stage as part of its most recent municipal cultural plans.
It’s all about bringing several existing parts together and adding in your own dash, statement and individuality.
Culture Days is still an opportunity to many communities. Those considering taking the opportunity to organize a Culture Days activity or event may want to check out Weyburn’s example.
This has been an exciting year for the Saskatchewan Archaeological Society (SAS). Acting executive Director Kim Cloutier says the SAS’s success comes largely from two new initiatives designed to introduce archaeology to those who are unfamiliar with it.
One Arrow First Nation, a Cree community north of Saskatoon, has retained its ties to its historic horse culture. Over the past year, the band, along with the One Arrow equestrian Centre, has partnered to create a program.
Macklin – A small town hugging the Alberta border. This extreme westerly area in Saskatchewan was relatively late to be settled. European settlers had only begun to seek settlement in 1906.
Saskatchewan students are getting back to nature with the help of Nature Saskatchewan’s Nature Quest program.
Students from Balcarres learned that the art of film, audio and digital photography can create a fascinating opportunity to learn about Treaties in Saskatchewan.
Every year in Saskatoon the Federation des Francophones de Saskatoon host the Cinergie Festival. The festival has been advertised as one of Saskatchewan’ most unique arts and culture festivals and this year.
“I have always been interested in revitalizing our main street,” says Elaine Hanson, town councillor and business owner, Fort Qu’Appelle. “We tend to use the beauty of the Qu’Appelle Valley as an excuse to do very little to improve the aesthetics of the t
The Northern Sport, Culture and Recreation District (NSCRD) has developed the Northern Saskatchewan Arts & Culture Handbook, a colourful, 50- page publication, which highlights many of the region’s creative talent.
Charlotte Hauk’s job is unique. “I might be the only person doing this kind of stuff, at least in Regina,” she says. It’s probably true.
To be an inclusive organization requires more than just opening one’s doors a bit wider. Today’s inclusive organization must continue identifying who it serves and how it can adjust to be more open to the many cultures that call Saskatchewan home.
For Renu Kapoor, it has been a very rewarding experience to be on Multicultural Initiative Fund committee for SaskCulture. It has given me better insight into other ethnic cultures in Saskatchewan.
The Saskatchewan German Council is highly motivated when it comes to bringing people of German heritage together and highlighting the German culture.
Preserving and celebrating a little known part of this province’s heritage is the mission of the Saskatchewan African Canadian Heritage Museum Inc. (SACHM).
The Ukrainian culture runs deep throughout Saskatchewan. Hearing the language spoken, eating the traditional dishes or seeing the brightly coloured national dress, is common in many areas of the province.
Kindersley is taking the lead when it comes to showing off their culture. The town of about 4,400 residents is home to a diverse and talented group of performers, arts and culture supporters, and educators.
This past year, Saskatchewan participated in the first-ever Culture Days celebration that highlighted free, interactive cultural activities from across the country taking place on September 24-26, 2010.
As reality shows, such as Canadian Idol or So Youth Think you Can Dance, continue to capture the attention of aspiring talent, Saskatchewan’s northern youth have an even better opportunity to show their stuff.
This year, the Back to Batoche festival featured a wide range of performances including Saskatchewan’s own Lindsay Knight (Eekwol) and Donny Parenteau - among others, as well as workshops.
Ramses Calderon is a busy man. The El Salvadorn-born resident of Regina is a writer, musical scholar and innovative musician who incorporates traditional instruments and rhythms into his compositions.
Traditional languages provide insight into heritage
Keeping a food tradition alive for future generations
Dance project gives Saskatchewan residents a chance to learn Métis Culture
Humboldt making way for Living Heritage
Students bring together art and science in the classroom
Introducing Saskatchewan artists to students
Students find a creative outlet through music
Gaining confidence through dance
Project aims to bridge cultural difference between Saskatchewan residents
An annual Indigenous celebration brings school kids together to restore language and culture
Reflection and action needed in Saskatchewan's cultural community
The Town of Ogema fought back from rural decline with the development of a railway tour that would help steer the community towards a brighter future.
This summer will be the 29th SaskTel Saskatchewan Jazz Festival and the 24th year that Della Beal has volunteered with the Saskatoon festival.
Highway 1 Studio Tour brings local artists out into the limelight
Young participants recently had the opportunity to spend a week surviving without many of our modern conveniences.
Saskatchewan students are taking an active interest in their heritage thanks to a school program designed to explore history and culture.
How a town in southwest Saskatchewan discovered that the preservation of its past can spur cultural growth today.
Culture, games and sport all play an important role in a community, and a recent ArtsSmarts initiative set out to explore that connection through art and collaborative learning.
A visual art-based education program at Saskatoon’s Mendel Art Gallery combines both, and is building a creative legacy that will leave a mark on teachers and students for years to come.
Shaunna Grandish had the opportunity to interview Bonnie Mills Midgley, community development coordinator, Rivers West District for Sport, Culture and Recreation, about Culture Days and its impact to her community.
Humboldt is stepping into the future with a brand new culture-led growth plan.
Some may consider older styles of poetry to be dead, but a Saskatoon education coordinator is using the medium to bring the Cree language to life, and her students are reaping the rewards.
Every year, several theatre groups compete the top prize at Theatre Saskatchewan’s TheatreOne competition.
Every year, people in Saskatoon travel around the world learning about different cultures – only to find out what they have in their own backyard.
For several months in late 2013, about 20 senior citizens from the Regina-area have been creating memory boxes and paintings based on their own personal stories and narratives.
This past summer, from July 5-7, 2013, Saskatoon’s AKA Gallery and a group of renowned artists to create Saskatoon’s first annual street meet Festival.
Theatre has the power to transport us to new, imaginary worlds, and recently, Regina’s Curtain Razors brought a new world to life in their unique international performance, "Codice Remix."
Throughout the summer of 2013, SaskCulture ran a social media contest as a part of Culture Days in Saskatchewan asking residents to share what they love about culture by posting their photos, videos, poems or stories.
The organization of Saskatchewan Arts Councils has been making the arts more accessible to the people of Saskatchewan for 45 years.
Live theatre has the power to touch audiences in a way few other art forms can. The play The Trial of Louis Riel has been reaching out and touching people with its story for 47 years.
In July 2012, over 80 youth from Regina and Saskatoon participated in a first of its kind summer music camp.
The museum of Antiquities at the University of Saskatchewan in Saskatoon was a first-time Culture Days activity organizer in 2012. Michelle Brownridge had the opportunity to speak with Tracene Harvey, the director/curator at the museum.
Traditionally, Main Street has been the hub of the community for towns and villages throughout the province. Four Saskatchewan communities are now taking steps to ensure it remains that way for years to come.
PAVED Arts has preserved an often overlooked part of Saskatchewan’s cultural history.
Since Culture Days began in 2010, SaskCulture has hired artists from various disciplines to travel across the province to contact local community planners, libraries, museums and artists to help brainstorm ideas & build community support for Culture Days.
Gravelbourg’s Camille Bell was invited by teacher Anita Clarke to Mossbank School where Bell spent a day presenting Métis traditions to elementary school children.
Building a sense of home and place can sometimes be a daunting task for newcomers, especially youth. The Saskatchewan Organization of Heritage Languages (SOHL) and the Saskatchewan Filmpool Cooperative partnered to present a one-day workshop.
Museums. Art galleries. Historic sites. These three places are common sites on many cultural tours. In Saskatoon, leisure centres, government offices and food stores are the sites to discover instead.
An interest in cultural planning by five Saskatchewan communities has blossomed into an innovative regional partnership, which includes involvement in the Main Street pilot projects and increased community momentum.
The Aboriginal Arts and Culture Leadership Grant (AACL) was launched by SaskCulture in 2007 following a funding model developed by the Saskatchewan Arts Board. The AACL grant is aimed at increasing the capacity in Aboriginal communities.
Teachers from local school divisions from across the curriculum and grade levels participated in the two- day workshop to collaboratively create three lessons plans in a given subject and grade level that supported Treaty and Aboriginal education.
In 2007, five provincial music organizations, supported by SaskCulture and Saskatchewan Lotteries, entered into discussions as a way to investigate collaborative possibilities and create new synergies.
Over the past five years PAVED Arts has made outreach programming a priority for Saskatchewan’s media arts community.
It was a surprise to Broadview School student Adam Wyatt when his mother asked him if he would like to travel to Toronto to participate in a new program focused on youth leadership initiated by ArtsSmarts called the 21st Century Youth Creativity Challenge
Bright lights will be shining on Yorkton this May as the city welcomes film-lovers from across the country. The Yorkton Film Festival is the longest running film festival in North America.
At the SaskCulture Gathering in 2011, social media expert Darren Barefoot began by clarifying the difference between “digital immigrants”, those who are just learning to use social media (usually 32 years plus), and “digital natives”.
Now that Culture Days has come and gone for 2011, many organizations have had the chance to reflect on their involvement. The Art Gallery of Swift Current is the one of many cultural organizations that was pleased with the results.
A couple of years ago a group of community-minded people gathered in maple Creek for a community planning meeting. Twenty-one citizens representing 13 groups in maple Creek drafted a vision at that meeting.
Students in The Prairie Valley School Division explored their relationship to the land and to the Treaties through a Creative Partnership that had them interviewing community members, visiting outdoor sites and learning about digital film-making.
The Bright Colours of the Saskatchewan East Indian community were proudly on display this past year in celebration of culture and friendship between this province and India.
Only in its first year of operation, Creative Kids has already found success in serving Saskatchewan communities.
Heritage Saskatchewan is eager to bring more attention to the importance of heritage in the province. Incorporated in 2009, the organization is bringing the heritage community together to share common concerns and to work to raise greater awareness.
For those of you that think mastering the fiddle at 15 years old is an accomplishment, try playing one while balancing on stilts. Tristen Durocher of La Ronge, has been playing violin for the past five years.
Ready to move forward, the Saskatoon Symphony Orchestra (SSO) plans to bring sweet music to the Saskatoon community of Riversdale.
Recognized nationally for its original works and unique theatre experience, La Troupe du Jour is much more than entertaining, it is a major force in keeping the Fransaskois culture alive in the province.
A popular way of sharing a particular culture with others is through song. Always looking for ways to engage the public in their culture and traditions, the Doukhobor Cultural Society of Saskatchewan is planning to make their music even more accessible.
In March 2006, the University of Regina’s department of Media Production and Studies brought in wellknown Canadian Aboriginal filmmaker, Alanis Obomsawin, as a keynote speaker for what would turn out to be mispon’s first biannual film festival.
An impeccable view of a peaceful Saskatchewan valley, a white bolder, blue sky and quiet time is all it takes to enjoy the sacred site established in the province through the energies of Multi-Faith Saskatchewan.
Much of Saskatchewan’s recent growth can be attributed to the record immigration levels over the past few years.
Every community has a challenge to face. Through its work, Common Weal has shown how arts and culture can be used to help nurture positive change in communities and help them face their adversity.
Every community, large and small, has a story and cultural assets that help set it apart from those around it.
Known for its river, its heritage and its vibrant arts and culture scene, Saskatoon jumped on the opportunity to incorporate its unique culture into a range of different strategic planning priorities.
In Saskatchewan, the idea for a “culture week” or similar awareness campaign had been discussed for a number of years.
Have you ever passed by a classroom and heard children speaking Urdu or Igbo? The Saskatchewan Organization of Heritage Languages (SOHL) hopes the sounds of heritage language in schools will grow more and more common every year.